Monday, October 17, 2016

Cloud Computing for Next Generation Sequencing

DNA Sequencing refers different methods and technologies, which are used for determining the sequence or order of the nucleotide bases-adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine in a DNA molecule. The adverse use of advanced DNA sequencing i.e next generation sequencing has extremely accelerated biological research and discovery day by day.

DNA Sequencing was conducted through extensively laborious and rigorous methods before 1970, but the journey of advance DNA sequencing started with Maxam Gilbert Sequencing. The Chain-termination methods, Dye-terminator sequencing, High-throughput sequencing, Lynx Therapeutics' Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS), Polony Sequencing have come into the limelight for developing the technology. 454 pyrosequencing, Illumina (Solexa) sequencing, SOLiD sequencing, DNA nanoball sequencing etc. have started the next generation sequencing using different types of innovative technology.

The advent of next generation Sequencers are contributing a huge amount of data for analysis. However, it has increased the complexities of genomic sequencing workflows but enriched biological discoveries to the greater extent. A tightly integrated, scalable, high-performance computing platform with intelligent data management systems and uncompromised security could make all the difference in advancing DNA Sequencing. Moreover, transparency of the huge data generated by the sequencers must be decoded by the trustworthy platform.

Today’s Bioinformatics moving towards technology advancement and leveraging cloud computing to answer the parallel processing of gamut of data securely. Cloud computing infrastructures expected to be more scalable and transparent to make usability more conducive to Bioinformatics data scientists.

Sunday, July 31, 2016

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in Modern Science

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) holds the genetic blueprint to life of an organism. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order and arrangement of the four bases; ACGT - Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T) in a strand of a DNA molecule.

Various new technologies for DNA sequencing were developed by late 1990s. Nonetheless, they could be brought into commercial framework as DNA sequencers by the year 2000.

Lynx Therapeutics published and marketed “Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing”, or MPSS in 2000. This method introduced a “parallelized, adapter/ ligation-mediated, bead-based sequencing technology” and served as the first commercially available “next generation” sequencing method at that time.

In 2004, 454 Life Sciences incorporated and marketed a parallelized version of pyro-sequencing. The first version of their machine amazingly reduced sequencing costs 6-fold compared to automated Sanger sequencing. It was the second of the new generation of sequencing technologies, after MPSS.

New Generation Sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, furnishes a number of different modern sequencing technologies. Different types of modern sequencers are doing the job perfectly. 
They are:
  1. Roche 454 DNA sequencer
  1. Illumina
  1. Life Technologies
  1. Pacific Biosciences (PacBio RS)
  1. Beckman Coulter
  1. Oxford Nanopore
These modern technologies provide us the opportunity to sequence DNA as well as RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) much more quickly, accurately and cheaply than the previously used Sanger sequencing.
NGS can be used to sequence whole genome or constrained to specific areas of interest including all 22000 coding genes or small numbers of specific genes of human. Now scientists are using NGS methods to sequence the whole genomes of different organisms frequently.