Sunday, July 31, 2016

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) in Modern Science

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) holds the genetic blueprint to life of an organism. DNA sequencing is the process of determining the order and arrangement of the four bases; ACGT - Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T) in a strand of a DNA molecule.

Various new technologies for DNA sequencing were developed by late 1990s. Nonetheless, they could be brought into commercial framework as DNA sequencers by the year 2000.

Lynx Therapeutics published and marketed “Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing”, or MPSS in 2000. This method introduced a “parallelized, adapter/ ligation-mediated, bead-based sequencing technology” and served as the first commercially available “next generation” sequencing method at that time.

In 2004, 454 Life Sciences incorporated and marketed a parallelized version of pyro-sequencing. The first version of their machine amazingly reduced sequencing costs 6-fold compared to automated Sanger sequencing. It was the second of the new generation of sequencing technologies, after MPSS.

New Generation Sequencing (NGS), also known as high-throughput sequencing, furnishes a number of different modern sequencing technologies. Different types of modern sequencers are doing the job perfectly. 
They are:
  1. Roche 454 DNA sequencer
  1. Illumina
  1. Life Technologies
  1. Pacific Biosciences (PacBio RS)
  1. Beckman Coulter
  1. Oxford Nanopore
These modern technologies provide us the opportunity to sequence DNA as well as RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) much more quickly, accurately and cheaply than the previously used Sanger sequencing.
NGS can be used to sequence whole genome or constrained to specific areas of interest including all 22000 coding genes or small numbers of specific genes of human. Now scientists are using NGS methods to sequence the whole genomes of different organisms frequently.